Skip to main content

🧊 Ice Syntax

FAQ: What is ice?

The ice is something that melts in a drink, though in Zi syntax, it means adding an ice-modifier that's temporary because it disappears – which means that the ice-modifier will last only for the next Zi command.

Order of execution​

The order of execution of related ice modifiers is as follows:

  atinit'' →    atpull'!' →      make'!!' →        mv'' →          cp'' →            make'!' →              atclone'' / atpull'' →                make'!' →                [ plugin script loading ] →                  src'' →                    multisrc'' →                      atload''

A few remarks​

  • The syntax automatically detects if the object is a snippet or a plugin, by checking if the object is an URL, i.e.: if it starts with http*:// or OMZ::, etc.
  • To load a local-file snippet (which will be treated as a local-directory plugin by default) use the is-snippet ice,
  • To load a plugin in light mode use the light-mode ice.
  • If the plugin name collides with an ice name, precede the plugin name with @, e.g.: @sharkdp/fd (collides with the sh ice, ZI will take the plugin name as sh"arkdp/fd"), see the next section for an example.

extract'…'​

A swiss-knife tool for unpacking all kinds of archives – the extract'…' ice. It works in two modes – automatic mode and fixed mode.

Automatic mode​

It is active if the ice is empty (or contains only flags). It works as follows:

  1. At first, a recursive search for files of known file extensions located not deeper than in a sub-directory is being performed. All such found files are then extracted.
    • The directory-level limit is to skip extraction of some helper archive files, which are typically located somewhere deeper in the directory tree.
  2. If no such files will be found, then a recursive search for files of known archive types will be performed. This is done by running the file Unix command on each file in the plugin or snippet directory and then grepping the output for strings like Zip, bzip2, etc. All such discovered files are then extracted.
    • The directory-level requirement is imposed during this stage. The files located deeper than in a sub-directory are omitted.
  3. If no archive files will be discovered then no action is being performed and also no warning message is being printed.

Fixed mode​

It is active when a filename is being passed as the extract's argument, e.g.: zi extract=archive.zip for z-shell/null. Multiple files can be specified – separated by spaces. In this mode all and only the specified files are being extracted.

Filenames with spaces​

The filenames with spaces are supported when correctly passing such filenames to an extract with the non-breaking spaces for the original in-filename.

The non-breaking space is easy to type by pressing right ALT and the SPACE.

Flags​

The value of the ice can begin with two special characters:

  1. Exclamation mark (!), i.e.: extract='!…' – it'll cause the files to be moved one directory level up upon unpacking,
  2. Two exclamation marks (!!), i.e.: extract='!!…' – it'll cause the files to be moved two directory-level up upon unpacking,
  3. Dash (-), i.e.: extract'-…' – it'll prevent removal of the archive after unpacking.
    • This flag allows comparing timestamps with the server in case of snippet-downloaded file – it will prevent unnecessary downloads during zi update, as the timestamp of the archive file on the disk will be first compared with the HTTP last-modification time header.

The flags can be combined in any order: extract'!-'.

ziextract​

Sometimes a more uncommon unpacking operation is needed. In such a case you can directly use the function that implements the ice – it is called ziextract.

It recognizes the following options:

  1. --auto – runs the automatic extraction.
  2. --move – performs the one-directory-level-up move of the files after unpacking.
  3. --move2 – performs the two-directory-level-up move of the files after unpacking.
  4. --norm - prevents the archive file removal.
  5. And also one option specific only to the function: --nobkp, which prevents clearing the plugin's directory before the extraction. – All files besides the archive are being moved into the ._backup directory after extraction is done. - extract ice also skips creating the backup if more than one archive is found or given as the argument.

Supported file formats​

Zip, rar, tar.gz, tar.bz2, tar.xz, tar.7z, tar, tgz, tbz2, gz, bz2, txz, xz, 7z, exe, deb, OS X (dmg).

from'…'​

To install and load a plugin whose repository is private - e.g: requires providing credentials to log in – use the from'…' ice in the following way:

zi ice from"[email protected]"zi load user/fsh-auto-themes

Current preset:

Ice nameDomain name / URL
gegitee.com
giteegitee.com
githubgithub.com
ghgithub.com
gitlabgitlab.com
glgitlab.com
notabugnotabug.org
nbnotabug.org
bitbucketbitbucket.org
bbbitbucket.org
github-relgithub.com/$remote_url_path/releases
gh-rgithub.com/$remote_url_path/releases
cygwincygwin
note

If the from'…' ice isn't one of the above tables, then it is treated as a domain name and inserted into the domain position into the git clone URL:

git clone https://{from-ice-contents}/user/plugin

In order to change the protocol, use the proto'…' ice.

Summary of from'…'​

By using this method you can clone plugins from e.g. GitHub Enterprise or embed the passwords as plain text in .zshrc.

id-as'…'​

Load a plugin or snippet with a nickname with the id-as'…' ice-modifier. For example, one could try to load docker/compose from GitHub binary releases:

zi ice as"program" from"gh-r" mv"docker-c* -> docker-compose"zi light "docker/compose"

This registers the plugin under the ID docker/compose. Now suppose the user would want to also load a completion from the project's GitHub repository (not the binary release catalog) which is also available under the GitHub URL …/docker/compose. The two IDs, both being "docker/compose", will collide.

The solution to this problem – the id-as'…' (to be read as identify-as) ice to which this document is devoted: by using the id-as'…' ice the user can resolve the conflict by loading the completion under a kind of a nickname, for example under "dc-complete", by issuing the following commands:

zi ice as"completion" id-as"dc-complete"zi load docker/compose

The plugin (of the type completion) is now seen under ID dc-complete:

zi list | grep -i dc-completedc-complete

Issuing zi report dc-complete will work as with regular command:

zi report dc-completePlugin report for dc-complete-------------------------------Completions:_docker-compose [enabled]

The same method applies to nickname snippets. For instance, use it to create handy IDs in place of long URLs:

zi ice as"program" id-as"git-unique"zi snippet https://github.com/Osse/git-scripts/blob/master/git-unique

The commands zi update git-unique, and zi delete git-unique will work as expected and e.g. zi times will show the nickname-ID git-unique instead of the long URL.

id-as'auto'​

There's a special value to the id-as'…' ice – auto. It causes the nickname to be automatically set to the last component of the plugin name or snippet URL. For example:

zi ice as"program" id-as"auto"zi snippet https://github.com/Osse/git-scripts/blob/master/git-unique

will work the same as before, e.g: if the ice used was id-as'git-unique'. Will work as if id-as'zsh-autopair' was passed:

zi ice wait lucid id-as"auto"zi load hlissner/zsh-autopair

Empty id-as'…'​

An empty id-as'…' will work the same as id-as'auto' as if id-as'zsh-autopair' was passed, e.g:

zi ice wait lucid id-aszi load hlissner/zsh-autopair

wait'…'​

note

Turbo mode, i.e. the wait'…' is ice that implements it - needs Zsh >= 5.3.

zi ice wait'0' # or just: zi ice waitzi light wfxr/forgit
  • waits for prompt,
  • instantly ("0" seconds) after prompt loads given plugin.
zi ice wait'[[ -n ${ZLAST_COMMANDS[(r)cras*]} ]]'zi light z-shell/zi-crasis
  • screencast that presents the feature:
  • $ZLAST_COMMANDS is an array built by F-Sy-H, it contains commands currently entered at prompt,
  • (r) searches for an element that matches a given pattern (cras*) and returns it,
  • -n means: not-empty, so it will be true when users enter "cras",
  • after 1 second or less, Zi will detect that the wait'…' condition is true, and load the plugin, which provides command crasis,
zi ice wait'[[ $PWD = */github || $PWD = */github/* ]]'zi load unixorn/git-extra-commands

it waits until the user enters a github directory. Turbo mode also supports a suffix – the letter a, b, or c. The meaning is illustrated by the following example:

zi ice wait"0b" as"command" pick"wd.sh" atinit"echo Firing 1" lucidzi light mfaerevaag/wdzi ice wait"0a" as"command" pick"wd.sh" atinit"echo Firing 2" lucidzi light mfaerevaag/wd

Till output:

Firing 2Firing 1

As can be seen, the second plugin has been loaded first. That's because there are now three sub-slots (the a, b, and c) into which the plugin/snippet loadings can be put. Plugins from the same time slot with suffix a will be loaded before plugins with suffix b, etc.

In other words, instead of wait'1', you can enter wait'1a', wait'1b', and wait'1c' – this imposes the loading order of the commands regardless of actual execution time.

zi-turbo '…' for …​

The zi-turbo is a function to simplify wait:

zi-turbo() {  zi depth'3' lucid ${1/#[0-9][a-c]/wait"${1}"} "${@:2}"}

Then use the for syntax in the imposed loading order:

zi-turbo '0a' for \  OMZL::git.zsh \  OMZL::compfix.zsh \  OMZL::functions.zsh \zi-turbo '0b' for \  OMZL::prompt_info_functions.zsh OMZL::spectrum.zsh \  OMZL::clipboard.zsh OMZL::termsupport.zsh OMZL::directories.zshzi-turbo '0c' for \  OMZP::sudo OMZP::encode64 \    atload"unalias grv g" OMZP::git \  OMZP::gcloud OMZP::nvm OMZP::gem OMZP::rustzi-turbo '1a' for \  MichaelAquilina/zsh-you-should-use

src'…' pick'…' multisrc'…'​

Normally src'…' can be used to specify the additional file to the source:

zi ice pick'powerless.zsh' src'utilities.zsh'zi light martinrotter/powerless
SyntaxDescription
pick'…'Provide the main file to the source - like *.sh, otherwise alphabetically first matched file is sourced.
src'…'Provide a second file to the source - not a pattern - plain file name.

The svn ice​

However, via atload'…' ice one can provide a simple loop to source more files:

zi ice svn pick'completion.zsh' \  atload'local f; for f in git.zsh misc.zsh; do source $f done'zi snippet OMZ::lib
SyntaxDescription
svnUse Subversion to clone OMZ::lib (the whole Oh-My-Zsh lib/ directory). More 1.
atload'…'Code isn't tracked and cannot be unloaded. The atload'…' is executed after loading main files pick'…' and src'…'. More 2.

The multisrc'…' ice​

Loads multiple files enumerated with spaces as the separator (e.g. multisrc'misc.zsh grep.zsh') and also using brace-expansion syntax (e.g. multisrc'{misc,grep}.zsh'). Example:

zi ice svn pick'completion.zsh' \  multisrc'git.zsh functions.zsh {history,grep}.zsh'zi snippet OMZ::lib

All possible ways to use the multisrc'…' ice-modifier:

zi ice depth'1' multisrc='lib/{functions,misc}.zsh' pick'/dev/null'
zi load robbyrussell/oh-my-zsh

Can use patterns:

zi ice svn multisrc'{funct*,misc}.zsh' pick'/dev/null'zi snippet OMZ::lib
zi ice svn multisrc'misc.zsh functions.zsh' pick'/dev/null'zi snippet OMZ::lib

Will use the array's value at the moment of plugin load:

This can matter when using turbo mode.

array=({functions,misc}.zsh)zi ice svn multisrc"\$array" pick'/dev/null'zi snippet OMZ::lib

Compatible with KSH_ARRAYS option:

array=({functions,misc}.zsh)zi ice svn multisrc"${array[*]}" pick'/dev/null'zi snippet OMZ::lib

Hack with Zi: the ice's contents are simply eval-uated like follows: eval "reply=($multisrc)".

So it might get handy on an occasion to pass code there, but first, you must close the paren and then don't forget to assign reply, and to provide a trailing opening paren. In the code be careful to not redefine any variable used internally by Zi – e.g.: i is safe:

array=({functions,misc}.zsh)zi ice svn multisrc'); local i; for i in $array; do reply+=( ${i/.zsh/.sh} ); done; ((1)' pick'/dev/null'zi snippet OMZ::lib

Extended with the for syntax which can in some situations replace a typical multisrc'…' loading. The idea of this syntax is to source multiple snippets with a single command.

Instead of:

zi ice multisrc'(functions|misc|completion).zsh'zi snippet OMZ::lib

it's possible to write:

zi for \  OMZL::functions.zsh \  OMZL::misc.zsh \  OMZL::completion.zsh

which is somewhat easier on the eyes.

Important Property

The multiple snippets loaded with the for syntax are being loaded separately, which means that they will not cause a longer keyboard blockage, which could have been noticeable – when loading in turbo mode.

The Zi scheduler will distribute the work over time and will allow activation of the keyboard in between the snippets. The multisrc'…' way doesn't work this way – sourcing many files may cause a noticeable keyboard freeze (in turbo mode).

wrap'…'​

The wrap' …' ice-modifier allows extending the tracking (e.g.: the gathering of the report and unloading data) of a plugin beyond the moment of sourcing its main file(s). It works by wrapping the given functions with a tracking-enabling and disabling snippet of code. This is useful especially with prompts, as they very often do their initialization in the first call to their precmd hook function.

For example, romkatv/powerlevel10k works this way. The ice takes a list of function names, with the elements separated by ;:

zi ice wrap"func1;func2;…"

Use case for wrap'…'​

Therefore, to load and unload for the example powerlevel10k prompt in the fashion of multiple prompts article, the precmd function of the plugin – called _p9k_precmd, to get the name of the function do echo $precmd_functions after loading a theme, should be passed to wrap'…' ice.

Load when MYPROMPT == 4

zi ice load'![[ $MYPROMPT = 4 ]]' unload'![[ $MYPROMPT != 4 ]]' \  atload'source ~/.p10k.zsh; _p9k_precmd' wrap'_p9k_precmd'zi load romkatv/powerlevel10k

This way the actions done during the first call to _p9k_precmd() will be normally recorded, which can be viewed in the report of the romkatv/powerlevel10k theme:

zi report romkatv/powerlevel10k
Report for romkatv/powerlevel10k plugin---------------------------------------Source powerlevel10k.zsh-theme (reporting enabled)Autoload is-at-least with options -U -z(…)Note: === Starting to track function: _p9k_precmd ===Zle -N p9k-orig-zle-line-finish _zsh_highlight_widget_zle-line-finishNote: a new widget created via zle -N: p9k-orig-zle-line-finishZle -N -- zle-line-finish _p9k_wrapper__p9k_zle_line_finishAutoload vcs_info with options -U -zZstyle :vcs_info:* check-for-changes true(…)Zstyle :vcs_info:* get-revision falseAutoload add-zsh-hook with options -U -zZle -F 22_gitstatus_process_response_POWERLEVEL9KAutoload_gitstatus_cleanup_15877_0_16212/docs/guides/syntax/wrapZle -N -- zle-line-pre-redraw _p9k_wrapper__p9k_zle_line_pre_redrawNote: a new widget created via zle -N: zle-line-pre-redrawZle -N -- zle-keymap-select _p9k_wrapper__p9k_zle_keymap_selectNote: === Ended tracking function:_p9k_precmd ===Functions created:+vi-git-aheadbehind                      +vi-git-remotebranch(…)

Summary of wrap'…'​

As it can be seen, the creation of four additional Zle-widgets has been recorded - Zle -N … lines. They will be properly deleted/restored on the plugin unload with MYPROMPT=3 as an example and the shell state will be clean, ready to load a new prompt.

atclone'…' atpull'…' atinit'…' atload'…'​

There are four code-receiving ice-modifiers: atclone'…', atpull'…', atinit'…', atload'…'.

Their role is to receive a portion of Zsh code and execute it in specific moments of the plugin life-cycle.

SyntaxExecution moment
atclone'…'after cloning the associated plugin or snippet to the disk.
atpull'…'after updating the associated plugin or snippet.
atinit'…'before loading of the associated plugin or snippet.
atload'…'after loading of the associated plugin or snippet.

For convenience, you can use each of the ices multiple times in a single zi ice … invocation – all commands will run in the given order.

The atpull'…' ice recognizes a special value: %atclone, so the code looks: atpull'%atclone'. It causes the contents of the atclone'…' ice to be copied into the contents of the atpull'…' ice.

This is handy when the same tasks have to be performed on clone and on the update of plugin or snippet, like e.g.: in the direnv example.

atload'!…' with exclamation mark preceded​

The wrap'…' The ice-modifier allows the track and unload of plugins that defer their initialization to a function and run later after sourcing the plugin's script – When the function call, the plugin is then fully initialized.

However, if the function is being called from the atload'…' ice, then the exclamation mark-preceded method can be used with atload'…' contents. The exclamation mark causes the effects of the execution of the code passed to atload'…' ice to be recorded.

Use case for atload'…'​

For example, in the following invocation:

zi ice id-as'test' atload'!PATH+=:~/share'zi load z-shell/null

the $PATH is being changed within atload'…' ice. Zi's tracking registers $PATH changes and withdraws them on the plugin unload and shows loading information:

zi report test
Report for test plugin----------------------Source  (reporting enabled)PATH elements added:/home/sg/share

As it can be seen, the atload'…' code is being correctly tracked and can be unloaded & viewed. Below is the result of using the unload'…' subcommand to unload the test plugin:

zi unload test
--- Unloading plugin: test ---Removing PATH element /home/user/shareUnregistering plugin testPlugin report saved to $LASTREPORT

The same example as in the wrap'…' article, but using the exclamation mark-preceded atload'…' instead of wrap'…':

Load when - MYPROMPT == 4

zi ice load'![[ $MYPROMPT = 4 ]]' unload'![[ $MYPROMPT != 4 ]]' \  atload'!source ~/.p10k.zsh; _p9k_precmd'zi load romkatv/powerlevel10k

  1. Unless you load a plugin (not a snippet) with zi load … and prepend the value of the ice with an exclamation mark. Example: atload'!local f; for …'.↩
  2. Note that atload'…' uses apostrophes, not double quotes, to put $f into the string, atload'…''s code is automatically being run within the snippet's or plugin's directory.↩