跳到主要内容

☑️ 一般概述

此概览包括以下内容:

  1. Oh-My-Zsh & Prezto
  2. 命令补全
  3. Turbo 模式
  4. Ice 修饰符

加载插件和片段

zi load z-shell/H-S-MW
zi light zsh-users/zsh-syntax-highlighting

上面的命令显示了两种加载基本插件的方式。 如果你想加载本地或远程 (使用直链) 文件, 你可以使用 snippet 来实现。

zi snippet <URL>

应将此类行添加到 .zshrc。 片段在本地缓存,使用 -f 选项下载片段的新版本,或 zi update {URL}。 使用 zi update --all 更新所有片段和插件。

使用 load 可以启用报告 -- 这样你可以跟踪插件的工作,用 zi report {plugin-name}查看信息,然后用 zi unload {plugin-name}卸载插件。

使用 light ,可以在不跟踪和报告有关插件的情况下加速插件加载,但也牺牲了了卸载插件的能力。

使用 loadlight

zi load  <repo/plugin> # Load with reporting/investigating.
zi light <repo/plugin> # Load without reporting/investigating.

带着跟踪报告加载 history-search-multi-word 插件:

zi load z-shell/H-S-MW

不带跟踪报告加载两个普通插件:

zi light zsh-users/zsh-autosuggestions
zi light z-shell/F-Sy-H

片段:

zi snippet https://gist.githubusercontent.com/hightemp/5071909/raw/
备注

在 Turbo 加载模式中,由插件跟踪带来的速度减慢是在后台完成的,并且不会影响用户体验。 例如,,使用zi lightzi load 具有相同的效果。

Oh-My-Zsh, Prezto

要加载Oh-My-Zsh和Prezto插件,请使用 snippet 功能。 片断是 单个文件 ,通过 curlwget 等工具从 URL 直接下载。下载工具会自动检测:

zi snippet 'https://github.com/robbyrussell/oh-my-zsh/raw/master/plugins/git/git.plugin.zsh'
zi snippet 'https://github.com/sorin-ionescu/prezto/blob/master/modules/helper/init.zsh'

另外,对于 Oh-My-Zsh 和 Prezto ,你可以使用 OMZ::PZT:: 的缩写:

zi snippet OMZ::plugins/git/git.plugin.zsh
zi snippet PZT::modules/helper/init.zsh

此外,GitHub 支持通过 Subversion 协议加载片段。 这允许加载多文件的片段(例如,一个 Prezto 模块可以由两个或多个文件组成,例如 init.zshalias.zsh)。

默认加载的文件是: *.plugin.zsh, init.zsh, *.zsh-theme

指向目录的URL:

zi ice svn
zi snippet PZT::modules/docker

Snippet 和性能

使用 curlwget 等,加上Subversion,使我们几乎完全避免了专门用于 Oh-My-Zsh 和 Prezto 的代码,也避免了其他框架。 它提供了更好的性能,因为它对内存的占用很低,加载时间更短。

Ice 修饰符

命令 zi ice 将为其紧随的下一条命令提供 冰修饰符。例:zi ice <some-ice-modifier> zi load some/plugin,在执行完下一条命令后,冰修饰符将会失效。

“冰”是一种添加物,例如添加到饮料或咖啡中 —— 在 Zi 里,冰修饰符将是下一条 Zi 命令的添加物。 “冰”也是会融化的东西,所以它不会留存很久 —— 在 Zi 里,这意味着它的效果只能作用于一条命令。

使用另一个冰修饰符 pick 用户可以明确地 指定加载的文件

zi ice svn pick"init.zsh"
zi snippet PZT::modules/git

冰修饰符的内容只需要简单地置于 "…"'…'$'…' 之中。 不需要再在冰修饰符名称后加上 ":"(当然这是合规的:它与 = 等效,例如 pick="init.zsh"pick=init.zsh)。

以这样的写法,vimemacs 等编辑器与 zsh-users/zsh-syntax-highlightingz-shell/F-Sy-H 等插件可以高亮冰修饰符的内容。

关于 as"program"

一个插件可能不是一个用于 source 的文件,而是要添加到 $PATH 的命令 为了达到这种效果,使用 ice 修饰符 as 配合值 program (或者使用其别名 command).

zi ice as"program" cp"httpstat.sh -> httpstat" pick"httpstat"
zi light b4b4r07/httpstat

上述命令会把插件目录添加到 $PATH,拷贝文件 httpstat.shhttpstat 并将可执行权限 (+x) 添加到通过 pick 所选的文件上.。即 httpstat。 另一个 ice 修饰符。mv。其工作原理类似于 cp移动,而不是 复制 文件。 mvcp 之前运行。

提示

cpmv 这些 ice ( 还有一些其他的,如 atclone) 在插件或片段被 安装 时运行. 要再次测试它们,请首先删除该插件或片段 ( 例如: zi delete PZT::modules/osx)。

Ice 修饰符: atpull'…'

复制文件对日后的更新是安全的 - 仓库的原始文件没有被修改, Git 会报告没有冲突。 然而, 如果在插件 更新 过程中使用了 atpull Ice 修饰符,那么 mv 也是可以使用的。

zi ice as"program" mv"httpstat.sh -> httpstat" \
pick"httpstat" atpull'!git reset --hard'
zi light b4b4r07/httpstat

如果 atpull 以感叹号 (!) 开头,那么它将在 git pull,以及 mv之前运行。 尽管如此, atpull, mv, 和 cp 只有在需要获取新的提交时才会运行

简言之,当用户运行 zi update b4b4r07/httpstat 以更新此插件,并且有新的提交时, 首先发生的是 git reset --hard 并且它 还原 了原始 httpstat.sh然后运行 git pull ,它下载新的提交(快速前进), 接着 mv 重新运行,所以命令是 httpstat 而不是 httpstat.sh

这样, mv Ice 修饰符可以用来对插件的内容进行永久性的修改,而不妨碍用 git ,或者用 subversion 在使用片段的情况下来更新它。

信息

For exclamation marks to not be expanded by Zsh an interactive session, use '…' not "…" to enclose contents of atpull ice-modifier.

Ice modifier: subscribe'…'

Ice modifier defers the loading of a plugin while checking the modification time of the given file(s), and when it changes, it then triggers the loading of the plugin or a snippet.

Copy and paste the example below to the terminal or add it to the .zshrc file and reload the shell with exec zsh.

zi ice subscribe'{~/files-*,/tmp/files-*}' id-as'z-sub' lucid \
atload'+zi-message "{profile}I have been loaded{nl}\
{auto}\`Zi Rocks ♥\`"' notify"Yes that is cool ♥ "
zi load z-shell/0

Update file as subscribed above to test the ice modifier:

touch ~/files-1

The plugin or snippet will be sourced as many times as the file gets updated.

Snippets as'…' program

Commands can also be added to $PATH using snippets:

zi ice mv"httpstat.sh -> httpstat" \
pick"httpstat" as"program"
zi snippet https://github.com/b4b4r07/httpstat/blob/master/httpstat.sh
提示

Snippets also support atpull, e.g. atpull'!svn revert'. There’s also an atinit ice-modifier, executed before each loading of plugin or snippet.

Snippets as'…' completion

By using the as'…' ice modifier with the value completion you can point the snippet subcommand directly to a completion file:

zi ice as"completion"
zi snippet https://github.com/docker/cli/blob/master/contrib/completion/zsh/_docker

补全管理

Zi allows disabling and enabling each completion in every plugin. Try installing a popular plugin that provides completions:

zi ice blockf
zi light zsh-users/zsh-completions

The first command, the blockf ice, will block the traditional method of adding completions. Zi uses this method, based on symlinks instead of adding several directories to $fpath. Zi will automatically install completions of a newly downloaded plugin.

To uninstall and install completions:

Uninstall:

zi cuninstall zsh-users/zsh-completions

Install:

zi creinstall zsh-users/zsh-completions

列出可用补全

To see what completions all plugins provide, in tabular formatting and with the name of each plugin:

zi clist

This command is adapted for plugins like zsh-users/zsh-completions, which provide many completions – listing will have 3 completions per line, and a smaller number of terminal pages can be occupied like this:

To show more completions per line by providing an argument to clist, e.g.: zi clist 6, will show:

启用/禁用 - 补全

Completions can be disabled and other completion will be used, e.g. Zsh builtin. The commands are very basic, they only need completion name:

Disable cmake completion:

zi cdisable cmake

Enable cmake completion:

zi cenable cmake

Command zi csearch will search all plugin directories for available completions:

对子目录的 subversion

In general, to use subdirectories of Github projects as snippets add /trunk/{path-to-dir} to the URL:

zi ice svn
zi snippet https://github.com/zsh-users/zsh-completions/trunk/src
提示

For Oh-My-Zsh and Prezto, the OMZ:: and PZT:: prefixes work without the need to add the /trunk/ infix, however, the path should point to a directory, not to a file.

zi ice svn
zi snippet PZT::modules/docker

Turbo 模式(Zsh >= 5.3)

冰修饰符 wait 允许用户将插件的加载时机推迟到 .zshrc 处理完毕、第一行命令行提示符出现之后。

它就像 Windows 的逻辑 —— 启动过程中,它首先显示一个桌面,然后在后台继续加载数据。 这种做法有缺点,但肯定比 10 分钟的空白屏幕要好。 但在 Zi 中,这种方法没有任何缺点 —— 没有延迟、冻结等问题。—— 在加载插件的过程中,命令行仍然完全可用,无论以这种方法加载了多少插件。

信息

Turbo 模式将加速 Zsh 启动速度 50%-80%。 例如,从 200 ms 加速到 40 ms。

备注

需要 Zsh 5.3 及以上的版本。

为了使用 Turbo 模式,以下列方式之一对目标插件使用冰修饰符 wait

PS1="READY > "
zi ice wait'!0'
zi load halfo/lambda-mod-zsh-theme

This sets plugin halfo/lambda-mod-zsh-theme to be loaded 0 seconds after .zshrc. It will fire up after c.a. 1 ms of showing the basic prompt READY >.

You probably won't load the prompt in such a way, however, it is a good example in which turbo mode can be observed. The exclamation mark causes Zi to reset the prompt after loading the plugin – commonly needed for themes. The same with Prezto prompts, with a longer delay:

zi ice svn silent wait'!1' atload'prompt smiley'
zi snippet PZT::modules/prompt

Using zsh-users/zsh-autosuggestions without any drawbacks:

zi ice wait lucid atload'_zsh_autosuggest_start'
zi light zsh-users/zsh-autosuggestions

Turbo mode is the key to the performance

Turbo 模式可以异步地加载,这在插件数量增加时作用重大。 一般用法为 zi ice wait'<SECONDS>'

备注

单独使用 wait 等效于 wait'0'

zi ice wait
zi load z-shell/history-search-multi-word

2秒后加载:

zi ice wait'2'
zi load z-shell/history-search-multi-word

异步加载同样可用于 lightsnippet

zi ice wait
zi snippet https://gist.githubusercontent.com/hightemp/5071909/raw/

Turbo mode & lucid

Turbo 模式与 lucid 是最常用的组合,因为 Turbo 模式会打印加载日志 —— 可以通过添加 lucid 静默加载。

zi ice wait lucid
zi load z-shell/history-search-multi-word

Turbo mode with sophisticated prompts

对于一些,主要是高级主题,命令行提示符的初始化是在 precmd 钩子中完成的:precmd 钩子会在每行提示符出现之前执行一次。 The hook is installed by the add-zsh-hook Zsh function by adding its name to the $precmd_functions array.

使用 Turbo 模式异步加载主题可能导致钩子未执行,主题未能立即初始化。为了确保其能加载后能立即初始化,应使用 atload'…' 冰修饰符。

首先检查 $precmd_functions 找到主题安装的钩子。 在这里以主题 robobenklein/zinc 为例,它安装了两个钩子:prompt_zinc_setupprompt_zinc_precmd

print $precmd_functions
_zsh_autosuggest_start prompt_zinc_setup prompt_zinc_precmd

将其加入 atload'…',确保主题加载后立即执行一遍钩子,完成初始化。

zi ice wait'!' lucid nocd \
atload'!prompt_zinc_setup; prompt_zinc_precmd'
zi load robobenklein/zinc

atload'!…' 中的感叹号用于跟踪允许插件被卸载的方法,详见此处。 It might be useful for the multi-prompt setup described next.

Summary of turbo mode

自动提示(auto-suggestion)功能使用了 precmd 钩子,它会在 .zshrc 处理过程结束后立即执行一次 —— 即所谓的在每行提示符出现之前执行一次

Turbo 模式中,被单独的 wait 修饰的命令,其将在 precmd 钩子执行完毕的 1 ms 后才执行。 这将使自动提示在第一行提示符无法支持这些命令。

However the given atload'…' ice-modifier fixes this, it calls the same function that precmd would, right after loading autosuggestions, resulting in the same behavior of the plugin.

The ice called lucid causes the under-prompt message saying Loaded zsh-users/zsh-autosuggestions that normally appears for every Turbo-loaded plugin to not show.

Automatic condition based - load & unload

Ices load and unload allow defining when you want plugins active or inactive:

Load when in ~/tmp:

zi ice load'![[ $PWD = */tmp* ]]' unload'![[ $PWD != */tmp* ]]' \
atload'!promptinit; prompt sprint3'
zi load z-shell/zprompts

Load when NOT in ~/tmp:

zi ice load'![[ $PWD != */tmp* ]]' unload'![[ $PWD = */tmp* ]]'
zi load russjohnson/angry-fly-zsh

Two prompts, each active in different directories. This technique can be used to have plugin-sets, e.g. by defining parameter $PLUGINS with possible values like cpp, web, admin and by setting load / unload conditions to activate different plugins on cpp, on web, etc.

备注
  • The difference with wait is that load / unload are constantly active, not only till the first activation. Note that for the unloading of a plugin to work the plugin needs to be loaded with tracking, so zi load … and not zi light ….

Tracking causes a slight slowdown, however, this doesn’t influence Zsh startup time when using turbo mode.

A Glance at the prompts

提示

See: multiple prompts or more information. It contains more real-world examples of a multi-prompt setup, which is close to what the author uses in his setup.

This is powerlevel10k, pure, starship sample:

Load powerlevel10k theme:

~/.zshrc
zi ice depth"1"
zi light romkatv/powerlevel10k

Load pure theme:

will pick the async.zsh library and will source it.

~/.zshrc
zi ice pick"async.zsh" src"pure.zsh"
zi light sindresorhus/pure

Load starship theme:

  • pick starship binary as a command, from the GitHub release.
  • setup starship using atclone and create init.zsh and completion.
  • the atpull'…' behavior same as atclone'…' and but is used when running zi update.
  • src will source init.zsh.
~/.zshrc
zi ice as"command" from"gh-r" \
atclone"./starship init zsh > init.zsh; ./starship completions zsh > _starship" \
atpull"%atclone" src"init.zsh"
zi light starship/starship

Common use cases

Load the pure theme, with the zsh-async library that's bundled with it.

~/.zshrc
zi ice pick"async.zsh" src"pure.zsh"
zi light sindresorhus/pure

Binary release in the archive, from GitHub. After automatic unpacking, it provides the program "fzf".

~/.zshrc
zi ice from"gh-r" as"program"
zi light junegunn/fzf

One other binary release needs renaming from docker-compose-Linux-x86_64. This can be done by ice modifier: mv'{from} -> {to}'.

There are multiple packages per single version for OS X, Linux, and Windows – the ice-modifier bpick is utilized to select the Linux package – in this case - not required, Zi will grep operating system name and architecture automatically when there's no bpick.

~/.zshrc
zi ice from"gh-r" as"program" mv"docker* -> docker-compose" bpick"*linux*"
zi load docker/compose

Handle completions without loading any plugin, see the clist command. This one is to be run just once, in an interactive session.

~/.zshrc
zi creinstall %HOME/my_completions

If you are interested to try out more then check out the playground repository where users have uploaded the ~/.zshrc and other Zi configurations. Feel free to submit your ~/.zshrc configuration.

Additional examples: collection.