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🔀 Standard Syntax

Introduction​

Zi provides two syntax types for structured statements or expressions:

  • Standard syntax
  • The "For" syntax

It is up to the user which syntax to use, but it is highly recommended to familiarize yourself with both of them. In this example, we will use an empty repository z-shell/0 to practice the basics of the standard syntax.

  • Execute the following command in your terminal:
zi load z-shell/0

Successfully installed the Zsh plugin which usually contains all the setup instructions as described in the Zsh plugin standard.

A snippet is a single file with a portion of reusable source code, machine code, or text and requires a full path or URL to the file.

  • Execute the following command in your terminal:
zi snippet https://raw.githubusercontent.com/z-shell/zi-src/main/lib/zsh/snippets/welcome.zsh

Success! But not always everything is so easy and simple, also sometimes we want certain things to happen at certain times or conditions. This can be achieved using ice-modifiers.

The top line contains ice-modifiers, and the bottom line is the plugin.

  • Execute the following commands in your terminal:
zi ice id-as'zsh/plugin' atinit'print "Hello World!"'
zi load z-shell/0

This registered the plugin under the plugin ID zsh/plugin instead of z-shell/0. This will work as expected e.g. zi update zsh/plugin, zi remove zsh/plugin, etc. The "Hello World!" printed before loading the plugin

Let's install again with more ice-modifiers.

  • Execute the following commands in your terminal:
zi ice id-as'final/countdown' \
atinit'+zi-message "{bapo}Cloned!"' \
atclone'+zi-message "{quos}Boom!"' \
atload'+zi-message "{apo}Loaded!"' countdown
zi load z-shell/0

Order of execution​

The order of execution of related ice-modifiers is as follows:

  atinit'' →
atpull'!' →
make'!!' →
mv'' →
cp'' →
make'!' →
atclone'' / atpull'' →
make'!' →
[ plugin script loading ] →
src'' →
multisrc'' →
atload''

A few remarks​

  • The syntax automatically detects if the object is a snippet or a plugin, by checking if the object is an URL, i.e.: if it starts with http*:// or OMZ::, etc.
  • To load a local-file snippet (which will be treated as a local-directory plugin by default) use the is-snippet ice,
  • To load a plugin in light mode use the light-mode ice.
  • If the plugin name collides with an ice name, precede the plugin name with @, e.g.: @sharkdp/fd (collides with the sh ice, ZI will take the plugin name as sh"arkdp/fd"), see the next section for an example.

Syntax alternatives​

Zi supports alternatives such as the equal (=) syntax:

zi ice id-as=equal atload="print Hello World"
zi load z-shell/0

The colon (:) syntax:

zi ice id-as:colon atload:"print Hello World"
zi load z-shell/0

And also – in conjunction with all of the above – the GNU syntax:

zi ice id-as=GNU --atload="print Hello World"
zi load z-shell/0

The syntax alternatives can utilize the highlighting of editors like Vim – and have the strings and ice expressions colorized with a distinct color. However, with zi-vim-syntax the syntax definition can be superseded with the highlighting specifically for Zi. syntax definition can be superseded with the highlighting specifically for Zi.

Utilizing "make"​

Vim repository on GitHub – a typical source code that needs compilation, Zi can manage the run of ./configure and other make stuff. Ice-modifier pick adds the binary program to $PATH. You could also install the package under the path $ZPFX.

~/.zshrc
zi ice as"program" atclone"rm -f src/auto/config.cache; ./configure" \
atpull"%atclone" make pick"src/vim"
zi light vim/vim

The make'…' ice could also be: make"install PREFIX=$ZPFX", if "install" wouldn't be the only, default target.

info

$ZPFX is provided by Zi, it is set to ~/.zi/polaris by default. However, it can be changed by specifying the $ZPFX= target.

~/.zshrc
zi ice as"program" pick"$ZPFX/bin/git-*" make"PREFIX=$ZPFX"
zi light tj/git-extras

The Makefile of the project above has only 2 tasks:

  1. Install the target.
  2. Build scripts that are required for installation.

The Makefile with 2 tasks, can use:

  1. make"all install PREFIX=…",
  2. pick'…' will chmod +x all matching files and add $ZPFX/bin/ to $PATH.

Compiling programs​

zi ice as"program" atclone"rm -f src/auto/config.cache; ./configure" \
atpull"%atclone" make pick"src/vim"
zi light vim/vim
SyntaxDescription
as'program'Add file selected by pick'…' to $PATH, and do not source it.
atclone'…'Execute code after downloading.
atpull'%atclone'Execute the same code atclone'…' is given, but after successful update.
makeRun make after atclone'…' and atpull'…' (note: make'!' will execute before them).
pick'src/vim'Set the executable flag on src/vim, hint that src/ should be added to $PATH.

The same but with installation (make install) under $ZPFX by default:

zi ice as'program' atclone'rm -f src/auto/config.cache; \
./configure --prefix=$ZPFX' atpull'%atclone' make'all install' pick'$ZPFX/bin/vim'
zi light vim/vim
SyntaxDescription
as'program'As above.
atclone'…'As above plus pass --prefix=$ZPFX to ./configure, to set the installation directory.
atpull'%atclone'As above.
makeAs above, but also run the install target.
pick'src/vim'as above, but for a different path $ZPFX/bin/vim.

LS_COLORS​

A repository trapd00r/LS_COLORS provides a file with color definitions for GNU ls command, and also for ogham/exa. Typically one does eval $( dircolors -b $HOME/LS_COLORS) to process this file and set the environment for ls. This means dircolors is run by every shell startup. It costs much time to create a fork and program, i.e., the dircolors binary needs to be loaded to obtain and process the color definitions. The following invocation solves this problem:

zi ice atclone'dircolors -b LS_COLORS > clrs.zsh' \
atpull'%atclone' pick"clrs.zsh" nocompile'!' \
atload'zstyle ":completion:*" list-colors ${(s.:.)LS_COLORS}'
zi light trapd00r/LS_COLORS
SyntaxDescription
atclone'…'Generate shell script, passing it to eval. More: 1
atpull'%atclone'Do the same at any update of the plugin. More: 2
pick"clrs.zsh"Source the previously generated file clrs.zsh.
nocompile'!'Invokes compilation after the atclone'…' and the exclamation mark causes this.
atload'…'Additionally sets up the Zsh completion to use the colors provided by the trapd00r package.

This way, except for the plugin installation and update, dircolors isn't run, just normal sourcing is done. The everyday sourced file, i.e. clrs.zsh, is being compiled to speed up the loading.

Direnv​

The project direnv/direnv registers itself in the Z shell to modify the environment on directory change. This registration is most often done by eval "$(direnv hook zsh)" added to .zshrc.

zi ice as"program" make'!' atclone'./direnv hook zsh > zhook.zsh' \
atpull'%atclone' src"zhook.zsh"
zi light direnv/direnv
  • make'!' – execute make before atclone'…' and before atpull'…' (see make above),
  • src'zhook.zsh' – source file zhook.zsh.

In general, direnv works by hooking up to Zsh. The code that does this is provided by the program direnv (built by make'…').

Above atclone'…' puts this code into file zhook.zsh, src'' sources it. This way direnv hook zsh is executed only on clone and update, and Zsh starts faster.

Glance at the 'for' syntax​

The drawback of this standard procedure is that the direnv binary is run on every shell startup and significantly slows it down. Zi allows to solve this in the following way:

zi as"program" make'!' atclone'./direnv hook zsh > zhook.zsh' \
atpull'%atclone' pick"direnv" src"zhook.zsh" for \
direnv/direnv
SyntaxDescription
make'!'Compile direnv, the exclamation mark means: run the make first, before atclone'…' and atpull'…' hooks.
atclone'…'As soon as the plugin is installed generate the registration code and save it to zhook.zsh, instead of passing it to eval.
atpull'%atclone'The atclone'…' runs on installation while atpull'…' runs on update of the plugin.
src'zhook.zsh'Load generated registration code
pick'direnv'Ensure +x permission on the binary
as'program'The plugin is a program, there's no main file to the source.

In this method, the registered code is generated once on every installation or update, then sourced without running direnv itself. The project is also available as a binary GitHub releases. This distribution can be installed by:

zi from"gh-r" as"program" mv"direnv* -> direnv" \
atclone'./direnv hook zsh > zhook.zsh' atpull'%atclone' \
pick"direnv" src="zhook.zsh" for \
direnv/direnv
SyntaxDescription
from'gh-r'Install from direnv from GitHub Github releases.
mv'direnv* -> direnv'After installation, rename direnv.linux-386 or similar file to direnv.
atclone'…', atpull'…'Same above example.
pick'direnv'Same above example.
as'program'Same above example.

extract'…'​

A swiss-knife tool for unpacking all kinds of archives – the extract'…' ice. It works in two modes – automatic mode and fixed mode.

Automatic mode:

It is active if the ice is empty (or contains only flags). It works as follows:

  1. At first, a recursive search for files of known file extensions located not deeper than in a sub-directory is being performed. All such found files are then extracted.
    • The directory-level limit is to skip extraction of some helper archive files, which are typically located somewhere deeper in the directory tree.
  2. If no such files will be found, then a recursive search for files of known archive types will be performed. This is done by running the file Unix command on each file in the plugin or snippet directory and then grepping the output for strings like Zip, bzip2, etc. All such discovered files are then extracted.
    • The directory-level requirement is imposed during this stage. The files located deeper than in a sub-directory are omitted.
  3. If no archive files will be discovered then no action is being performed and also no warning message is being printed.

Fixed mode:

It is active when a filename is being passed as the extract's argument, e.g.: zi extract=archive.zip for z-shell/null. Multiple files can be specified – separated by spaces. In this mode all and only the specified files are being extracted.

Filenames with spaces:

The filenames with spaces are supported when correctly passing such filenames to an extract with the non-breaking spaces for the original in-filename.

The non-breaking space is easy to type by pressing right ALT and the SPACE.

Flags:

The value of the ice can begin with two special characters:

  1. Exclamation mark (!), i.e.: extract='!…' – it'll cause the files to be moved one directory level up upon unpacking,
  2. Two exclamation marks (!!), i.e.: extract='!!…' – it'll cause the files to be moved two directory-level up upon unpacking,
  3. Dash (-), i.e.: extract'-…' – it'll prevent removal of the archive after unpacking.
    • This flag allows comparing timestamps with the server in case of snippet-downloaded file – it will prevent unnecessary downloads during zi update, as the timestamp of the archive file on the disk will be first compared with the HTTP last-modification time header.

The flags can be combined in any order: extract'!-'.

ziextract​

Sometimes a more uncommon unpacking operation is needed. In such a case you can directly use the function that implements the ice – it is called ziextract.

It recognizes the following options:

  1. --auto – runs the automatic extraction.
  2. --move – performs the one-directory-level-up move of the files after unpacking.
  3. --move2 – performs the two-directory-level-up move of the files after unpacking.
  4. --norm - prevents the archive file removal.
  5. And also one option specific only to the function: --nobkp, which prevents clearing the plugin's directory before the extraction. – All files besides the archive are being moved into the ._backup directory after extraction is done. - extract ice also skips creating the backup if more than one archive is found or given as the argument.

Supported file formats​

Zip, rar, tar.gz, tar.bz2, tar.xz, tar.7z, tar, tgz, tbz2, gz, bz2, txz, xz, 7z, exe, deb, OS X (dmg).

from'…'​

To install and load a plugin whose repository is private - e.g: requires providing credentials to log in – use the from'…' ice in the following way:

zi ice from"[email protected]"
zi load user/fsh-auto-themes

Current preset:

Ice nameDomain name / URL
gegitee.com
giteegitee.com
githubgithub.com
ghgithub.com
gitlabgitlab.com
glgitlab.com
notabugnotabug.org
nbnotabug.org
bitbucketbitbucket.org
bbbitbucket.org
github-relgithub.com/$remote_url_path/releases
gh-rgithub.com/$remote_url_path/releases
cygwincygwin
note

If the from'…' ice isn't one of the above tables, then it is treated as a domain name and inserted into the domain position into the git clone URL:

git clone https://{from-ice-contents}/user/plugin

In order to change the protocol, use the proto'…' ice.

id-as'…'​

Load a plugin or snippet with a nickname with the id-as'…' ice-modifier. For example, one could try to load docker/compose from GitHub binary releases:

zi ice as"program" from"gh-r" mv"docker-c* -> docker-compose"
zi light "docker/compose"

This registers the plugin under the ID docker/compose. Now suppose the user would want to also load a completion from the project's GitHub repository (not the binary release catalog) which is also available under the GitHub URL …/docker/compose. The two IDs, both being "docker/compose", will collide.

The solution to this problem – the id-as'…' (to be read as identify-as) ice to which this document is devoted: by using the id-as'…' ice the user can resolve the conflict by loading the completion under a kind of a nickname, for example under "dc-complete", by issuing the following commands:

zi ice as"completion" id-as"dc-complete"
zi load docker/compose

The plugin (of the type completion) is now seen under ID dc-complete:

zi list | grep -i dc-complete
dc-complete

Issuing zi report dc-complete will work as with regular command:

zi report dc-complete

Plugin report for dc-complete
-------------------------------

Completions:
_docker-compose [enabled]

The same method applies to nickname snippets. For instance, use it to create handy IDs in place of long URLs:

zi ice as"program" id-as"git-unique"
zi snippet https://github.com/Osse/git-scripts/blob/master/git-unique

The commands zi update git-unique, and zi delete git-unique will work as expected and e.g. zi times will show the nickname-ID git-unique instead of the long URL.

  • id-as'auto':

There's a special value to the id-as'…' ice – auto. It causes the nickname to be automatically set to the last component of the plugin name or snippet URL. For example:

zi ice as"program" id-as"auto"
zi snippet https://github.com/Osse/git-scripts/blob/master/git-unique

will work the same as before, e.g: if the ice used was id-as'git-unique'. Will work as if id-as'zsh-autopair' was passed:

zi ice wait lucid id-as"auto"
zi load hlissner/zsh-autopair
  • empty id-as'…':

An empty id-as'…' will work the same as id-as'auto' as if id-as'zsh-autopair' was passed, e.g:

zi ice wait lucid id-as
zi load hlissner/zsh-autopair

wait'…'​

note

Turbo mode, i.e. the wait'…' is ice that implements it - needs Zsh >= 5.3.

zi ice wait'0' # or just: zi ice wait
zi light wfxr/forgit
  • waits for prompt,
  • instantly ("0" seconds) after prompt loads given plugin.
zi ice wait'[[ -n ${ZLAST_COMMANDS[(r)cras*]} ]]'
zi light z-shell/zi-crasis
  • screencast that presents the feature:
  • $ZLAST_COMMANDS is an array built by F-Sy-H, it contains commands currently entered at prompt,
  • (r) searches for an element that matches a given pattern (cras*) and returns it,
  • -n means: not-empty, so it will be true when users enter "cras",
  • after 1 second or less, Zi will detect that the wait'…' condition is true, and load the plugin, which provides command crasis,
zi ice wait'[[ $PWD = */github || $PWD = */github/* ]]'
zi load unixorn/git-extra-commands

it waits until the user enters a github directory. Turbo mode also supports a suffix – the letter a, b, or c. The meaning is illustrated by the following example:

zi ice wait"0b" as"command" pick"wd.sh" atinit"echo Firing 1" lucid
zi light mfaerevaag/wd
zi ice wait"0a" as"command" pick"wd.sh" atinit"echo Firing 2" lucid
zi light mfaerevaag/wd

will output:

Firing 2
Firing 1

As can be seen, the second plugin has been loaded first. That's because there are now three sub-slots (the a, b, and c) into which the plugin/snippet loadings can be put. Plugins from the same time slot with suffix a will be loaded before plugins with suffix b, etc.

In other words, instead of wait'1', you can enter wait'1a', wait'1b', and wait'1c' – this imposes the loading order of the commands regardless of actual execution time.

src'…' pick'…' multisrc'…'​

Normally src'…' can be used to specify the additional file to the source:

zi ice pick'powerless.zsh' src'utilities.zsh'
zi light martinrotter/powerless
SyntaxDescription
pick'…'Provide the main file to the source - like *.sh, otherwise alphabetically first matched file is sourced.
src'…'Provide a second file to the source - not a pattern - plain file name.

The svn ice​

However, via atload'…' ice one can provide a simple loop to source more files:

zi ice svn pick'completion.zsh' \
atload'local f; for f in git.zsh misc.zsh; do source $f done'
zi snippet OMZ::lib
SyntaxDescription
svnUse Subversion to clone OMZ::lib (the whole Oh-My-Zsh lib/ directory). More 3.
atload'…'Code isn't tracked and cannot be unloaded. The atload'…' is executed after loading main files pick'…' and src'…'. More 4.

The multisrc'…' ice​

Loads multiple files enumerated with spaces as the separator (e.g. multisrc'misc.zsh grep.zsh') and also using brace-expansion syntax (e.g. multisrc'{misc,grep}.zsh'). Example:

zi ice svn pick'completion.zsh' \
multisrc'git.zsh functions.zsh {history,grep}.zsh'
zi snippet OMZ::lib

All possible ways to use the multisrc'…' ice-modifier:

zi ice depth'1' multisrc='lib/{functions,misc}.zsh' pick'/dev/null'
zi load robbyrussell/oh-my-zsh

Can use patterns:

zi ice svn multisrc'{funct*,misc}.zsh' pick'/dev/null'
zi snippet OMZ::lib
zi ice svn multisrc'misc.zsh functions.zsh' pick'/dev/null'
zi snippet OMZ::lib

Will use the array's value at the moment of plugin load:

This can matter when using turbo mode.

array=({functions,misc}.zsh)
zi ice svn multisrc"\$array" pick'/dev/null'
zi snippet OMZ::lib

Compatible with KSH_ARRAYS option:

array=({functions,misc}.zsh)
zi ice svn multisrc"${array[*]}" pick'/dev/null'
zi snippet OMZ::lib

Hack with Zi: the ice's contents are simply eval-uated like follows: eval "reply=($multisrc)".

So it might get handy on an occasion to pass code there, but first, you must close the paren and then don't forget to assign reply, and to provide a trailing opening paren. In the code be careful to not redefine any variable used internally by Zi – e.g.: i is safe:

array=({functions,misc}.zsh)
zi ice svn multisrc'); local i; for i in $array; do reply+=( ${i/.zsh/.sh} ); done; ((1)' pick'/dev/null'
zi snippet OMZ::lib

Extended with the for syntax which can in some situations replace a typical multisrc'…' loading. The idea of this syntax is to source multiple snippets with a single command.

Instead of:

zi ice multisrc'(functions|misc|completion).zsh'
zi snippet OMZ::lib

it's possible to write:

zi for \
OMZL::functions.zsh \
OMZL::misc.zsh \
OMZL::completion.zsh

which is somewhat easier on the eyes.

Important Property

The multiple snippets loaded with the for syntax are being loaded separately, which means that they will not cause a longer keyboard blockage, which could have been noticeable – when loading in turbo mode.

The Zi scheduler will distribute the work over time and will allow activation of the keyboard in between the snippets. The multisrc'…' way doesn't work this way – sourcing many files may cause a noticeable keyboard freeze (in turbo mode).

atclone'…' atpull'…' atinit'…' atload'…'​

There are four code-receiving ice-modifiers: atclone'…', atpull'…', atinit'…', atload'…'.

Their role is to receive a portion of Zsh code and execute it in specific moments of the plugin life-cycle.

SyntaxExecution moment
atclone'…'after cloning the associated plugin or snippet to the disk.
atpull'…'after updating the associated plugin or snippet.
atinit'…'before loading of the associated plugin or snippet.
atload'…'after loading of the associated plugin or snippet.

For convenience, you can use each of the ices multiple times in a single zi ice … invocation – all commands will run in the given order.

The atpull'…' ice recognizes a special value: %atclone, so the code looks: atpull'%atclone'. It causes the contents of the atclone'…' ice to be copied into the contents of the atpull'…' ice.

This is handy when the same tasks have to be performed on clone and on the update of plugin or snippet, like e.g.: in the direnv example.

atload'!…' with exclamation mark preceded​

The wrap'…' The ice-modifier allows the track and unload of plugins that defer their initialization to a function and run later after sourcing the plugin's script – When the function call, the plugin is then fully initialized.

However, if the function is being called from the atload'…' ice, then the exclamation mark-preceded method can be used with atload'…' contents. The exclamation mark causes the effects of the execution of the code passed to atload'…' ice to be recorded.

Use case for atload'…'​

For example, in the following invocation:

zi ice id-as'test' atload'!PATH+=:~/share'
zi load z-shell/null

the $PATH is being changed within atload'…' ice. Zi's tracking registers $PATH changes and withdraws them on the plugin unload and shows loading information:

zi report test
Report for test plugin
----------------------
Source (reporting enabled)

PATH elements added:
/home/sg/share

As it can be seen, the atload'…' code is being correctly tracked and can be unloaded & viewed. Below is the result of using the unload'…' subcommand to unload the test plugin:

zi unload test
--- Unloading plugin: test ---
Removing PATH element /home/user/share
Unregistering plugin test
Plugin report saved to $LASTREPORT

The same example as in the wrap'…' article, but using the exclamation mark-preceded atload'…' instead of wrap'…':

Load when - MYPROMPT == 4

zi ice load'![[ $MYPROMPT = 4 ]]' unload'![[ $MYPROMPT != 4 ]]' \
atload'!source ~/.p10k.zsh; _p9k_precmd'
zi load romkatv/powerlevel10k

wrap'…'​

The wrap' …' ice-modifier allows extending the tracking (e.g.: the gathering of the report and unloading data) of a plugin beyond the moment of sourcing its main file(s). It works by wrapping the given functions with a tracking-enabling and disabling snippet of code. This is useful especially with prompts, as they very often do their initialization in the first call to their precmd hook function.

For example, romkatv/powerlevel10k works this way. The ice takes a list of function names, with the elements separated by ;:

zi ice wrap"func1;func2;…"

Use case for wrap'…'​

Therefore, to load and unload for the example powerlevel10k prompt in the fashion of multiple prompts article, the precmd function of the plugin – called _p9k_precmd, to get the name of the function do echo $precmd_functions after loading a theme, should be passed to wrap'…' ice.

Load when MYPROMPT == 4

zi ice load'![[ $MYPROMPT = 4 ]]' unload'![[ $MYPROMPT != 4 ]]' \
atload'source ~/.p10k.zsh; _p9k_precmd' wrap'_p9k_precmd'
zi load romkatv/powerlevel10k

This way the actions done during the first call to _p9k_precmd() will be normally recorded, which can be viewed in the report of the romkatv/powerlevel10k theme:

zi report romkatv/powerlevel10k
Report for romkatv/powerlevel10k plugin
---------------------------------------
Source powerlevel10k.zsh-theme (reporting enabled)
Autoload is-at-least with options -U -z

(…)

Note: === Starting to track function: _p9k_precmd ===
Zle -N p9k-orig-zle-line-finish _zsh_highlight_widget_zle-line-finish
Note: a new widget created via zle -N: p9k-orig-zle-line-finish
Zle -N -- zle-line-finish _p9k_wrapper__p9k_zle_line_finish
Autoload vcs_info with options -U -z
Zstyle :vcs_info:* check-for-changes true

(…)

Zstyle :vcs_info:* get-revision false
Autoload add-zsh-hook with options -U -z
Zle -F 22_gitstatus_process_response_POWERLEVEL9K
Autoload_gitstatus_cleanup_15877_0_16212/docs/guides/syntax/wrap
Zle -N -- zle-line-pre-redraw _p9k_wrapper__p9k_zle_line_pre_redraw
Note: a new widget created via zle -N: zle-line-pre-redraw
Zle -N -- zle-keymap-select _p9k_wrapper__p9k_zle_keymap_select
Note: === Ended tracking function:_p9k_precmd ===

Functions created:
+vi-git-aheadbehind +vi-git-remotebranch

(…)

Summary of wrap'…':

As it can be seen, the creation of four additional Zle-widgets has been recorded - Zle -N … lines. They will be properly deleted/restored on the plugin unload with MYPROMPT=3 as an example and the shell state will be clean, ready to load a new prompt.


  1. The %atclone is just a special string that denotes the atclone'…' hook and is copied onto the atpull'…' hook.↩
  2. Save it to a file. The atclone'…' is being run on the installation while the atpull'…' hook is being run on an update of the trapd00r/LS_COLORS plugin.↩
  3. Unless you load a plugin (not a snippet) with zi load … and prepend the value of the ice with an exclamation mark. Example: atload'!local f; for …'.↩
  4. Note that atload'…' uses apostrophes, not double quotes, to put $f into the string, atload'…''s code is automatically being run within the snippet's or plugin's directory.↩